A 27-item self-report, depression questionnaire administered to a large nonclinical sample of adolescents yielded the following sixdepressive constructs (factors) related to the syndrome of children depression, as measured by the Children’s Depression Inventory and reported in Psychological Assessment (1998, 10, 156-165):
Dysphoria – characterized by items that loaded highly on sadness, crying spells, irritability, and loneliness (boys scored signficantly higher on this factor than girls).
Social Problems – reflects social difficulties with high loadings on social withdrawal and lack of friendships as well as school dislike and anhedonia (girls scored higher on this factor than boys).
Externalizing – is characterized by very high loadings on items relating to misbehavior, disobedience, and aggression (girls scored higher on this factor than boys).
Self-Deprecation – reflects a negative, deprecatory view of self with high loadings for items relating to low self-esteem, negative body image, self-hate, and feeling unloved.
School Problems – is characterized by two items with high loading on school work difficulty and drop in school performance.
Biological Dysregulation – included items that loads highly on sleep disturbance, loss of appetite, and fatigue (adolescent girls scored significantly higher on this factor than boys).
Mervin Smucker 2013